Educational Resource

English 12

Brief Course Description

Students will explore British and World Literature through reading stories, novels, plays, poems, and essays. They will examine the nature, character and universality of humankind as they become acquainted with prominent authors from many countries spanning several centuries. Students will use higher-level communication skills in reading, writing, speaking and listening to gain insight into their values, opportunities, and choices.

Content Objectives

  • Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development—
    • Etymology and morphology for systematically building vocabulary. This course emphasizes using those strategies to attack terms from political science, history–social science, science, and mathematics
    • To direct students’ attention to external context cues for meaning
  • Reading Comprehension—
    • Informational reading in the twelfth grade is focused on public documents (e.g., policy statements, speeches, debates, platforms)
    • The strongest emphasis is directed to the novels or selections students read evaluating and verifying facts and arguments. At the structural level students analyze the ways in which clarity of meaning interacts with elements such as word choice, organization, and syntax
    • The type of reading interrelates to the outline in writing (e.g., writing reports on historical investigations); speaking (e.g., delivering multimedia presentations); and listening (e.g., identifying logical fallacies in oral arguments)
  • Literary Response and Analysis—
    • Sub genres that span genres, such as satire and parody
    • Contrast the major literary forms and characteristics of the major literary periods (emphasis on world and British literature)
    • Relate literary works and authors to major themes and issues of their eras
    • Analyze the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences that have shaped characters, plots, and themes (emphasis on world and British literature)
  • Writing Strategies—
    • The basic elements of discourse (e.g., audience) as well as more advanced literary devices, such as irony. Write well-structured arguments with good support and employ rhetorical devices and visual aids to enhance meaning
      • Use a variety of research strategies and organize research information in systematic ways
      • Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processing documents
      • Revise student texts to highlight voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone
  • Written and Oral English Language Conventions—
    • Emphasis is given to using standard oral and written language conventions
    • Written work should be legible and edited to follow standard conventions for spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. Writing should also reflect appropriate manuscript requirements
  • Listening and Speaking Strategies—
    • Emphasis on analyzing media presentations of various types (e.g., advertisements, speeches, film, news) to help students recognize the strategies being used to inform, persuade, or entertain
    • Use standard English for clarity but recognize when informal language is effective and when technical language is needed
    • Use classic and contemporary forms of logical argument, including inductive and deductive reasoning and reasoning from analogies
  • Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)—
    • Deliver polished formal and extemporaneous reflective presentations, oral reports on historical investigations, oral responses to literature, multimedia presentations, and recitations of poems, selections from speeches, or dramatic soliloquies
  • Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)—
    • Student written texts should be about 1,500 words in length (five to six pages, typed and double-spaced)
    • Compose text as a reflective composition exploring the significance of personal experience or concern; historical investigation using primary and secondary sources; and composition that acknowledges issues of students’ approaching graduation from high school (i.e., filling out job applications and writing résumés).
    • Deliver multimedia presentations that clearly integrate reading, writing, speaking and listening using an appropriate medium for each component of the presentation and the skillful use of the selected media

Methods of Assessment
Assessment tools include the following but are not limited to:

1. Research projects
2. Portfolios
3. Written text
4. Oral communication Student demonstrations
5. Student grades
6. Periodic review of work by independent study teacher (IST)
7. Parent facilitator and education specialist observation


  • California State Department of Education—Recommended Literature Grades Nine Through Twelve
  • Core literature list:
    • 12th Grade (English Lit or AP) Hamlet—Shakespeare
    • Heart of Darkness—Conrad
    • Beowulf/Grendel
  • Holt Elements of Literature; 6th course, © 1997
  • McDougal-Littell The Language of Literature; © 2000/01
  • Holt Elements of Writing; 6th course, © 1993