### Pre-Algebra

This course prepares a student for a first year algebra course. It serves as a transition from arithmetic to algebra. Coursework includes a review of the concepts of arithmetic and an introduction to variables, expressions and equations, proportion, percent, and equations and inequalities and their graphs. It is designed to automate the use of fractions, mixed numbers, and decimal numbers in any and all operations. It also presents procedures for solving simple word problems. The concepts of area, percent, ratio, and order of operations are introduced. The beginning concepts of algebra are practiced thoroughly.

**Content Objectives**

- Operations
- Rational vs. irrational numbers
- Rational numbers in scientific notation
- Whole-number powers
- Convert fractions to decimals and percents

- Fractions
- Whole number exponents
- Common denominators
- Absolute value

- Algebra
- Use variables to write an equation or inequality
- Order of operations
- Two-step linear equations and inequalities in one variable
- Integer powers and simple roots
- Monomials: multiply, divide, take powers, and extract roots
- Graph and interpret linear and some nonlinear functions
- Slope

- Measurement and Geometry
- Use ratios to convert within and between measurement systems
- Compute perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric objects
- Understand and use the Pythagorean theorem
- Identify and construct basic elements of geometric figures
- Congruence

- Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
- Collect, organize, and represent data sets with one or more variable

- Word Problems
- Discounts, markups, commissions, and profit
- Simple and compound interest
- Percentage of increase and decrease of a quantity
- Rate, average speed, distance, and time

**Methods of Assessment**

Assessment tools include the following but are not limited to:

1. Research projects

2. Portfolios

3. Oral communication

4. Student demonstrations

5. Student grades

6. Written examinations

7. Parent facilitator and education specialist observation

8. Periodic review of work by independent study teacher (IST)

**Suggested Materials**

- Glencoe Pre-Algebra—An Integrated Transition to Algebra and Geometry; ©1999
- Saxon Algebra ½; 3/e ©2001
- Saunders College Publishing Pre-Algebra; ©1998